"; print "id: ".$id."
"; print "mgid: ".$mgid."
"; print "\$alias1=".$alias1."
"; print "\$alias2=".$alias2."
"; } // print "Show: \$subpage->GetMGID()=".$subpage->GetMGID()."
"; // $start=addslashes(((integer)$_GET['start']>0?(integer)$_GET['start']:0)); // print "
"; // $parentAlias=$map->GetParentAliasByChildAlias($alias1); // $tmpParentTitle=$map->GetTitleByAlias($parentAlias); if ($show_title && $map->GetTitleDisplayMode() ) { $tmpAlias=$map->GetAlias(); $tmpId=$map->GetId(); $link=$common->MakeLink( array("did"=>$tmpId, "id"=>0, "start"=>0, "title"=>$tmpAlias ) ); if ($alias2==""){ // have child - get parent title $tmptitle=$map->GetTitle(); } else { $tmptitle=$map->GetTitle(); if ($id>0) { } else { // $tmptitle=$map->GetTitle(); } } $pagebreak=$map->GetPageBreakMode(); // "pagebreak_menu" || "" || "pagebreak_pages" $css_zmniejsz_odstep=(($pagebreak=="pagebreak_menu")?"header1_zmniejsz_odstep":""); print "
"; //

/* if ($alias2==""){ if ($id==0){ print "
"; //

} else { // show parents title bar print "
"; //

} } else { if ($id==""){ print "
"; //

} else { print "
"; //

} } */ } ?>

Copus Andrew, Urban-Rural Relationships in the new century: Clarifying and updating the intervention logic


Effective Instruments Supporting Territorial Development

This paper seeks to clarify the rationale for policy which aims to stimulate growth by strengthening urban-rural linkages. It argues that since growth pole theory failed to deliver in the 1980s there has been a tendency for spatial planning and regional development policy documents to rely upon a range of concepts, such as ‘city regions’ and ‘urban-rural partnerships’ without fully articulating the underpinning ‘intervention logic’. Cities are described as ‘the engines of growth’, and rural spill-over benefits, driven by the increasing interconnectedness of functional areas, are assumed to follow. However a poorly developed, or implicit, rationale conveys a risk that implementation of policy to support urban-rural linkages will tacitly draw on anachronistic stereotypes, rather than acknowledging the twenty-first century realities of a globalised rural
economy and society.

This paper proposes a way in which this ‘theory deficit’ may be addressed. It is first argued that rural-urban relationships can take so many different forms that it is necessary to disaggregate the intervention logic into a number of ‘segments’ or ‘layers’, each of which addresses a different ‘market failure’ or inefficiency, and each of which enhances urban-rural synergies in a specific way.

Secondly it is very important to acknowledge the fact that today’s rural economies and societies are becoming less geographically constrained in their linkages: Interaction with nearby cities in many cases accounts for a declining proportion of total ‘network traffic’. This change affects some forms of interaction more than others. It is therefore argued that urban-rural policy interventions should be designed to operate within three distinct spatial contexts. In addition to conventional city-hinterland interventions, ‘generic’ (non-contiguous) urban-rural policies, and programmes which foster ‘translocal globalisation’ among rural businesses, should be considered.

The paper draws upon the findings of the ESPON ‘EDORA’ project and Framework 7 project ‘DERREG’.